Open letter to W3C CSS Working Group re CSS Grids.
Since I'm knee-deep in grids at the moment – both the book and Gridset – the theory, and thoughts on how it could and should apply on the web, is very much at the front of my mind. Last night I had a reminder on Twitter of the upcoming CSS3 Grid Layout draft. I recalled I wrote about it last year proposing some slight amendments regarding the addition of the module attribute. This would be a big change. It'd be great if it were considered, but I'm not hopeful.
However, that change not withstanding, one thing that really needs to change in this draft is the terminology used. Terminology (with some slight interchangeable differences) that has not really changed for many years in grid and layout design. Why reinvent it? Why define existing terminology to that more suited to spreadsheets and tables?
So, this morning, I emailed the working group to consider these changes. I'm posting this here for those who are not on the working group who may have opinions on this who can get in touch with me. I'd love to hear your thoughts, concerns and questions regarding this draft and how it fits with the established graphic design theory. I am of course on Twitter, or you can email me on this site.
In reference to: http://dev.w3.org/csswg/css3-grid-layout/#core-concepts-of-the-grid
I'm confused as to the need to invent new terminology with regards to grids that have existed for centuries. I'm also a little concerned that the mental model this terminology builds is one more similar to tables and spreadsheets (where these terms could be interchangeable) than to grids and layout.
Specifically on the terminology:
- Grid Lines are known as Gutters.
- Grid Cells are known as Modules (or Units – the term is interchangeable). They represent the smallest building block of the grid.
- Combinations of modules vertically are Columns *if* they run the full height of the grid.
- Combinations of modules horizontally are Rows *if* they run the full width of the grid
- Combinations of modules both vertically and horizontally are Fields.
There's a lot of great stuff in this draft, but some of the theory of designing grids has been around for centuries. If we could start to align CSS with existing terminology, and existing mental models of how layout is designed, then all the better.
Just a thought…
For more information on this, I wrote a blog post last year that expands on some of this thinking: http://www.markboulton.co.uk/journal/comments/rethinking-css-grids
Thanks for your time and consideration,
Recently at Mark Boulton Design, we’ve been working on a redesign of the global visual language for a large sports network. Like many web sites delivering news and editorial content, they rely on advertising for their revenue -- either through multiple ad slots on the page, or from video pre-rolls.
Early on in the project, we discussed Responsive Web Design at length. From an editorial and product perspective, it makes perfect sense. Who wouldn’t want their content adapting to a device their reading it on? Who wants to pinch-zoom again and again? From a business and product perspective, we’ve seen this from multiple clients who want to take advantage of certain interactions on certain devices -- swiping for example -- for users to better engage with the content in a more native way. All good. And then advertising comes along and things get challenging.
Here’s the problem as I see it:
- A large number of sites rely on advertising for revenue. Many of those sites will benefit from a Responsive Web Design approach.
- Web advertising is a whole other industry.
- Ad units are fixed, standardised sizes.
- They are commissioned, sold and created on the basis of their size and position on the page
- Many ads are rich (including takeovers, video, pop-overs, flyouts and interactions)
Let me go through each one of these in turn:
A large number of sites rely on advertising for revenue. Many of those sites will benefit from a Responsive Web Design approach.
The content for free expectation on the web has been around since it started. Many websites -- where you pay for the content in other forms, such as newspapers -- had to adopt this model, but use advertising dollars to pay for it. With the absence of any other revenue stream on these sites, the only other alternative is paywalls/subscriptions, and we’re seeing a few of these start to come through in mainstream newspapers now -- The Times, for example.
As I mentioned earlier, many of these websites will benefit from a responsive web design approach. The consumption of this content has changed along with the plethora of devices and viewports. As I’ve talked about before, designing a ‘best fit page’ is becoming increasingly challenging if you acknowledge how usage has changed and will continue to change in the coming years.
Web advertising is a whole other industry.
There are sub-industries within web design as a whole that generally don’t talk to each other -- such as gaming, gambling, porn, seo. Web advertising is another. These sub-sets each produce technology advances that everyone else benefits from. They deeply understand their audiences and how they interact within those verticals. But they don’t talk. Generally. For an industry that is built upon open standards, sharing, communication then this can be damaging.
Ad units are fixed, standardised sizes.
Hurray for standards! Because of the inherent reuse of advertising colatoral, this stuff had to be standardised. The Internet Advertising Bureau has been documenting emerging standards in web advertising for years now.
This is all good, especially for creating grid systems. Khoi Vinh talked about deriving a grid from an ad unit (PDF slides) when I shared a stage with him in SXSW in 2007. They are a fixed content element -- unchangeable and standardised across a website. They’re knowable.
They are commissioned, sold and created on the basis of their size and position on the page.
This is perhaps the biggest issue for me. For example, a sales teams basically have a page ‘template’ with ad slots. Position A, B and C. In A, you can fit a Leaderboard. In B an MMU, and C a button. Also, if an advertiser pays lots of money, they can have a takeover. A takeover includes banners down either side of the page which join up to create a wrapper. Sometimes Leaderboards in position A can be pop-overs or flyouts. Sometimes, crazy stuff can happen where someone throws a ball from ad position B to A. Yes. Seriously.
The sales team then proceeds in selling the slots to advertisers who in turn provide the ‘creative’. This could be animation, video, graphics - increasingly a combination of all three - that are embedded in the page by a scheduling application. They’re sold based on the impressions rather than clicks.
That’s a lot of variables to account for. But, web advertising is becoming an increasingly aggressive industry. Advertisers and web sites are looking to innovate to engage users through marketing campaigns that align across multiple media. And web sites need to be accommodating.
Sales teams through many industries are also largely commission-based. As a sales person, you have a basic salary (or sometimes you don’t), and then you earn more depending on what you sell in the month. And here’s the thing. A sales team need a simple model in order to sell ads: a template with slots and a list of ads that can go in then. Now, let’s introduce Responsive Web Design into this.
Let’s say, you have the minimum amount of break-points: desktop, tablet and small screen. A sales team has a template with Slot A (the primary slot) that accommodates a Leaderboard for the desktop. But then that changes to a MMU for tablet. And changes again to a thin banner for small screen. A sales person has to understand they’re selling ONE slot for this. And an advertiser has to understand they’re paying for ONE slot for this. However, they’re supplying three times the amount of creative. And this is just a very simple use case. What happens with a takeover? Everyone wants as much bang for their buck as they can muster.
Many ads are rich (including takeovers, video, pop-overs, flyouts and interactions)
Increasingly, ad units are not confined by their pixel borders. Take-overs combine multiple ad units to give an overall effect of taking over the page. Flyouts show and hide a layer on hover. Pop-over do the same but in a different way. Video autoplays. Animation completely breaks out of the ad unit and can fly around the screen: how ever annoying that might be. My point is that the notion of advertising being confined by their pixels is also becoming increasingly grey. How would you accommodate a flyout for a small screen, for example? Another type of flyout for each breakpoint? So now the advertiser has to produce three times the amount of complex creative for the same, single ad slot? In order to make this commercially viable, they’d be looking for a deal then.
Those are some of the practical logistical things I can think of to challenge the notion that you can just ‘serve a different ad for each break point’. It’s just not that simple when millions of dollars are at stake.
So what can we do to improve this?
Well, some responsive sites are incorporating ad units now. But not many.
Boston Globe has incorporated an MMU ad unit. They’ve done this by fixing the width of that column and have the ad unit occupy that space as the viewport is reduced down to a single column.
The good news is, this is a problem a few in the industry are seeing as an opportunity. ADO published a press release just last week:
to deliver cross-media web innovation, user experience design and integrated advertising for brand, agency and publisher clients specifically around mobile full-service responsive web design.
Matthew Snyder, CEO of ADObjects adds:
We wanted to share our vision on 11.11.11 since we believe a critical part of the right digital strategy is to build a cross-media mobile strategy with complete 1-to-1 parity multi-screen design. With one recent client we were able to see 4x more traffic and 30% of the traffic to mobile via responsive design methods due to search and social link matching over conventional mobile web platforms
If these numbers are to be believed, then there is a considerable ROI for advertisers to work to adopt responsive design and an ad strategy that would match.
Now, let’s get down to brass tacks. How would approach building out a complex responsive web site that had multiple slots?
The Standard Model
The existing model is based on advertiser filling slots, as shown in this diagram. Each is sold to perfectly fit an available slot. If none are sold, the website defaults down to a stand-in.
A Responsive Model
Firstly, I’d sell slot ‘packages’ rather than single slots. This requires an ad sales team to clearly explain what those slots and sizes are, and they’d be served on that basis. For example, an advertiser would buy a package for slot A. The creative to deliver against that package would be a Leaderboard, an MMU and a small banner for small screen.
Then, of course, the templates need to be able to detect the various widths and serve the correct ad based on that width.
Complex ads such as flyouts and takeovers would require much more thought and change. How could you effectively engage with an audience across the various viewport sizes when there is rich interaction involved?
As I mentioned, of course all of this is with a caveat that the advertiser is buying a slot ‘package’, rather than a single ad to fill a single slot. And that a sales team would sell it as such. This is the crucial difference, and for me, the biggest barrier to this change - it’s cultural and not technical, that requires a lot of explaining, and they always take the longest to do.
The template > slot > ad mental model is engrained both in advertisers, planners and web sites. Providing space for ads needs to be broadened into multiple spaces for one ad concept. This requires closer collaboration between advertisers and web sites, designers and marketeers and sales teams.
Over the past six months I’ve been working on this problem: speaking to sales teams, product owners, designers and as @kerns mentioned on Twitter this morning, the one thing that is plainly lacking at the moment is demand. I’d go one step further and say that the thing that’s missing is benefit. If the benefit can be clearly shown to advertisers and websites -- in terms of an increase in penetration, reach, and ultimately, revenue, then we’ll start to see some movement.
Rethinking CSS Grids
Off the back of this article in Net Magazine last week, and the subsequent few tweets popping up in my stream, I've finally managed (in no small part from the help of Nathan and Alex) to pull together some of my thoughts and concerns regarding CSS grids and how they could (or, maybe, should) be created.
What's there at the moment?
CSS Multi-Column is really simple. Basically, you divide a element into columns. This is already well-supported in many modern browsers.
Flexible Box Layout
Flexible Box Layout is a module that automatically resizes elements within another element without having to do a lot of painful maths.
Let's concentrate on Grid Layout, as this is potentially the most designer-friendly and should match existing mental models.
The issues with Grid Layout
How grids are constructed
The underpinning unit of measurement in a grid is The Module. From that starting point, Modules are combined to create columns and fields. Grid Layout doesn't acknowledge the existence, let alone use, of the Module. Instead it dives straight into columns and rows. Which brings me on to my second point:
grids have been around for quite a while and there is established words for things like Columns, Fields, Modules and Gutters. It's my feeling that the CSS grid module should speak the same language as designers, not that of developers.
A proposal for change
1. Start with a module
The starting point for any grid system is defining your module size. The module has also been referred to as a unit. I'm using module for reasons that will become clear.
To summarise, a module is a repeated rectangle, with gutters in-between, that, when combined, form columns and fields. A module size should rarely be defined, but derived from a fixed, knowable constant to be designed with: image sizes, ad units, video sizes, to name a few examples.
Following the Grid module's syntax, firstly we define our container div to display as a grid:
I then define my grid module with 'grid-module' as 50 pixels wide, and 30 pixels high:
grid-module: 50px 30px;
This of course be defined in percentages, or Ems:
grid-module: 8% 2%;
A new unit of measurement, defined once.
This is why I'm not using the terminology of unit for the module: in a grid system, the module is a unit of measurement. You combine and align content based on modules.
Similar to the Em, the Module becomes a user defined unit of measurement. And I'm proposing that we use that new unit of measurement to build our columns and fields.
2. Define the gutters
The next thing we need to do when building a grid is defining the gutter widths and heights. Please note, there, that gutters are also the horizontal spaces between units as well as the vertical.
For this example, I'll stick to something simple, like 21px.
grid-module: 50px 30px;
There's a reason for the 1. Quite often, you may want to visually separate columns of content with a keyline; a line that runs vertically in the middle of a column. If your gutter is an odd number, with an even number of pixels either side of it, it means that 1px is available for the keyline. The syntax for this could be similar to border:
grid-module: 50px 30px;
grid-gutter-keyline: 1px solid #333;
Of course, this keyline would be on every, single module - both horizontal and vertical. We would, of course, have to add this to columns and fields.
3. Define your x count
A module is modular. Meaning it is repeated, both on the x-axis and the y-axis. We know that the y-axis is difficult to work with on the web due to content reflow. We just can't control that vertical height yet. But, we can, and do, define the x-axis.
We use 'grid-x-count' to define the width of the grid. And this is the first time we introduce our new unit of measurement; The Module, or 'md'. In this example, our grid is 10 modules wide, or '10md'
grid-module: 50px 30px;
Now, all you need to do to see your grid is to add a background colour to the module:
grid-module: 50px 30px #ccc;
4. Define your columns
Next in the process of designing a grid is defining your columns. Now, you should have a pretty good idea of these from how your derived the Module. For this, I'm using the same syntax as the existing proposed Grid CSS3 module. But, for me, the exciting thing is, I can now use the new 'md' unit of measurement to define the width of my columns. So, let's say I want to create a column 2 modules wide on the left, 1 module wide on the right, and then a centre column of the rest. The 'fr' unit here is defined in the existing Grid Layout specification:
I add the 'grid-columns', with the first column as '3md'.
grid-module: 50px 30px;
The second column sees the introduction of a second proposed new unit: 'fr' - short for 'fraction', which is proposed in the existing Grid Layout proposal.
grid-module: 50px 30px;
grid-columns: 3md, 1fr;
Finally, I add the last column of 2md wide:
grid-module: 50px 30px;
grid-columns: 3md, 1fr, 2md;
That's my columns sorted. Now, I need to add the horizontal fields. How we might use these fields are for things like headers, content areas and footers.
5. Define your fields
We add the fields in the same was as the columns: using our new 'md' unit. Now, you may well ask: 'why can't I just use pixels for the height of my header?'. Well, you could, but then you'd have limited connectedness to the underpinning grid structure. As such, you header might not feel like it belonged to the other things on the grid. A grid, after all, is about creating unity.
grid-module: 50px 30px;
grid-columns: 3md, 1fr, 2md;
grid-fields: 3md, auto, 1md;
So now we have our grid. Three columns and three fields, but all built upon a new user-defined unit of measurement: The Module.
Some nice to haves
There are other things that I would find useful for a CSS grid module to provide. How cool would it be for CSS to be able to give you pain-free baseline grid?
1. Baselines (vertical rhythm)
A baseline grid provides vertical rhythm within your grid, so that type and images align across columns. It's possible at the moment, but fragile. Wouldn't be great if it were a simple declaration that magically applied a baseline grid so that all elements would vertically snap to it?
I'm thinking something like this:
2. Snap to grid
Speaking of snapping. Snap To Grid is a behaviour that many designers are familiar with. It's generally a toggle on/off in layout software. You create a grid with guide lines, and then you can toggle 'Snap to Grid' on so that elements that you position on the canvas, 'snap' to the grid you created instead of float nearby.
Now, this is fine for layout software - where the behaviour is drag and drop - it's a little different when we're positioning things in a document. To be honest, I've no idea how this could work, but the goal is that instead of positioning by pixel, we could 'snap' to our grid. Making the grid and the tools smart, so we don't have to do so much work manually.
3. Grid positioning
Now you have defined a new base unit of measurement, you can use it to position content relatively to the grid (instead of relatively to something arbitrary like pixels).
The benefits of a different approach:
As I discussed earlier, I feel the existing proposed Grid Module for CSS has a number of problems, and what this article aims to do is rectify those.
The process, and mental model of how a grid is constructed, is retained.
Grids are not made of columns and rows. Columns and fields are created by combining Modules. The first step in the process of creating a grid is not creating columns, but deriving and then defining your module size. Then everything else comes from that.
We have a new unit of measurement
By creating a new user-defined unit of measurement, we're able to continually bring the designers attention back to the grid. Not pixels, or Ems or %. Designers get this. It matches their mental model. But I think it goes beyond that. Having another unit of measurement that is specifically used for layout means that we can create a consistent, underpinning connectedness throughout our design. We can create padding and margins from the module. We can position elements relatively by the module size. Very useful, I'm sure you'll agree.
Nomenclature is retained.
For example, Gutters are a well understood term amongst designers for the space in between modules of a grid. They are replaced in the Grid proposal by the term Grid Lines. In my experience, the space in between a column is rarely thin enough to be called a line. In fact, quite often in layout, columns are separated by a visual keyline (as I mentioned before), with space either side.
One of the challenges for designers trying to get into web design, particularly trying to learn CSS, is the differences in terminology and also the mental models of how things are created. It's why tables were so popular early on. It's because the process of defining tables and rows for layout was familiar to designers. The terminology for designing grid systems has been around a long, long time. It's taught in design schools all over the world, and baked into design software. It works. And if it ain't broken, why fix it?
A way forward?
There are plenty of holes in this proposal. I'd love to take it forward into a proof of concept. Is this workable beyond simple three column layouts? How would this work for responsive designs? What about mobile?
But I think there's something in this. It just makes sense to me as a designer for the CSS Grid module to be using terminology I understand; for it to support the process and mental model of creating a grid; and provide me with a new unit of measurement -- the Module -- so I can use it to create connectedness across my design.
There are no comments on my blog anymore, but I'd like some debate and discussion around this, so ping me on Twitter and I'll provide an ongoing QA at the bottom of this post.
The difference between a Trend and a Shift
Back in 2003, when I first got wind of Web Standards, I was working at the BBC in Cardiff. I read Jeffrey's book and followed the excited writings of Doug, Dan and Dave. The web was electric with promise of a new direction. And all the while, I was working with some developers who questioned my excitement with new Web Standards pathway that was being laid before my eyes:
Why do you want to do that?
Table are better, because Tables WORK!
We can't change, this is the better way because we can be sure the website will behave in the same way on all browsers.
CSS isn't for layout, it's for changing the colour of things.
Web Standards is a trend.
And so it went. Week after week. Month after month. Until some big sites were launched that made people sit up and take notice. The Wired redesign, EPSN and the PGA site. yes, all the while, there were the naysays. The people who refused to accept that Web Standards was an acceptable way forward and, overall, a Good Thing. This is happening today with Responsive Web Design. Although, we're seeing it at a faster rate and, as a result, there's a lot of nuances that are perhaps not being addressed in the advocacy of this approach.
Let's start at the beginning...
Last year, Ethan wrote an important piece on A List Apart called Responsive Web Design. It detailed the combination of a few techniques he'd previously written about under one 'approach'. Then, in Seattle in March of last year at An Event Apart, that approach was combined in a 'Perfect Storm' of presentations from most of the speakers; a collective understanding that we need to move things along in a particular direction.
A few people have been advocating this approach over the past eighteen months, myself included. To me, Responsive Web Design is a set of techniques that serve to solve a bigger problem that I've been exploring for two years: Content Out not Canvas In. I'm excited about Responsive Web Design as an approach, as it helps me frame some of my thinking into practical implementation. Flexible grids, images and media queries give me some of the tools to let me create what's inside my head. But, that doesn't mean it's for everyone, or for every project.
Let's skip back to today...
This morning I got wind of a blog post from Luke Jones about his frustrations with the implementation of the collection of Responsive Web Design techniques. I share some of his frustration. But, just like with Web Standards before it, we need to go through this period of discovery. Pushing boundaries and breaking them is a vital piece of the design puzzle and we're very lucky, in this industry, to be able to do this type of experimentation (you know, without anyone dying or anything). However, the interesting part of this post is the ensuing comment discussion (95 and counting at publication of this post). it's clear to see that there is an awful lot of confused designers out there trying to work out if this thing is valuable and should we use it. Let me just cherry pick a couple of comments:
That's the thing, I'm not saying it looks bad I'm just saying what's the point? I haven't seen a valid reason for changes in browser widths affected how a website is displayed. Luke Jones
"That it changes at all is a red mark against usability, the user loads the page, the expectation as to the structure of that page is set. " Stuart Frisby
Users (me especially) do not want to see a site change when resizing the browser.Luke Jones
This final comment from Luke actually encapsulates the problems:
I think that's exactly it: there is overkill and inappropriate usage going on with the new technique. I honestly think the only people who notice a lot of the responsiveness are people like us, which makes it a waste of time.
I agree with this. But, that's ok. Responsive Web Design is REALLY NEW and NOBODY knows how to do it properly/right/appropriately yet! We're all just experimenting. And THAT'S FINE!
If the approach is deemed to be appropriate, then there is no reason why it can't be done. If people do it on their own blogs, because they want to experiment, then that's fine. It really is.
We're all just trying to work this out.
Like it or not, web design is maturing to a state of recognising the importance of content, presenting that content in different contexts that are appropriate for the users of those websites and applications. We're also challenging web design practice that has been around for 15 years or so, and graphic and typographic design practice that has been around for close to a 1000 years!
This will continue to hurt. And when Responsive Web Design matures, something else will come along that will challenge us again. And that's how we grow. That's how we move this thing forward.
Just as Web Standards was a shift in how we create websites, Responsive Web Design is part of another shift. It may be a little trendy at the moment, as people grapple with how to use it, but quickly – together with other things like Content Strategy, and the One Web, and Mobile First etc. - it will become another tool in this shift to a better, 'Content Out' web.
I’m going to leave the detailed explanation to Andy, but in a nutshell, the group is going to help the ‘W3C’s CSS Working Group to better deliver the tools needed for tomorrow’s web’. I’m particularly interested in having the opportunity to be involved in the several layout modules which have thus far been proposed.
Andy’s rounded up a fantastic bunch of designers and developers here. Hopefully we’ll have the collective clout to influence things in a positive way in the months to come.
There has been a lot said recently about Vertical Rhythm. Richard Rutter began the work on 24ways last year with the piece ‘Compose to a Vertical Rhythm’. This was built upon by Wilson Minor on A List Apart recently with his article on Baseline Grids. All sound typographic advice. If you haven’t read both of them, I’d urge you to do so now otherwise you know what I’m on about it in this post.
At @media this year, I presented ‘Five Simple Steps to Better Typography’. Step two in my presentation was was Vertical Rhythm where I reiterated some of the excellent points Richard made in his article and also the presentation we both gave in at SXSW in March. I also added something of my own: Incremental leading, or Incremental line-height.
Too much leading in the sidenote
Working through both Richard’s and Wilson’s articles, they both treat the sidenote in the same way. They align it directly to the vertical rhythm unit. This is correct of course. But, to my eye, the line-height in those sidenotes, as it’s a smaller type-size, is too large. 10px on 18px leading is stretching it. So, how do we reduce that line-height whilst still adhering to the vertical rhythm we’ve established. Once again, we look to print design for that answer.
In editorial design, there is a technique used for sidenotes and boxouts that aligns to the baseline grid, or vertical rhythm. It’s called incremental leading.
Here we have a simple page of text based upon Richard’s example. There is an H1, some text, a sidenote and a footer. They all align to an 18px vertical rhythm shown in red.
To my eyes, there is too much line-height to the sidenote. So, how can we reduce this line-height, but adhere to the 18px rhythm?
Instead of aligning every line in the sidenote with the vertical rhythm, when you use incremental leading, you align, say, one in every four or one in every five.
Here’s an example with incremental leading set to align every fifth line of the sidenote to every fourth line in the main content.
Adding in the vertical rhythm grid once more we can see the line alignment.
But how do I do this in CSS?
Firsty, make sure you read Richard’s article and apply the rules to body of text. Once you’ve got the 18px rhythm set up and everything’s aligning as it should, then you can look at the sidenote.
As we’ve decided we want to align 4 rows of the main content to 5 rows of the sidenote, we begin by finding the value, in pixels, of 4 rows combined.
Four lines of the main content.
18px x 4 = 72px
Then we find the value for 5 lines of the sidenote.
72px ÷ 5 = 14.4px
To calculate what 14.4px is in ems (in relation to the body, and the type size for the sidenote)
14.4px ÷ 10px = 1.44em
We then add the values to the CSS for the sidenote.
You can see this working in this example.
However, note the top margin. I really had to fiddle around with this manually to make sure the alignment was correct. I did try and work out the maths for it, but it proved to be very difficult as really I needed to find the cap-height value of the typeface in order to provide a margin.
Martyn, a bloke I now share an office with (who is also a Mathematics graduate), provided me with this diagram to illustrate my problems.
As you can see, the problem is I needed to find the value of ‘x’. In order to do that, I’d need to know the value of ‘b’. The difficulty arises from trying to align the baselines and the only way of doing it was aligning it by eye. But, if you can fathom it out, then I’d be grateful.
Now, all I need to do is find the time to apply to this site and the new business site.
Semantic Typography: Bridging the XHTML gap
In the Web Standards community we hear the words 'Semantic Markup' thrown around a lot as a concept—the right thing to do— but I know a lot of designers who are trying to learn this stuff are being confused by the whole 'semantic thing'.
It's a difficult task for a designer, who primarily thinks very visually, to relate to a concept like semantics in a document when all they want to do is create something.
After doing a ton of research over the past couple of weeks I've begun to notice links and patterns between typographic theory and Web Standards.
I'm going to keep this quite brief and hopefully practical from a design and development point of view.
First of all, I'll explain some of my thinking.
In most documents there is a typographic structure and a hiearchy of elements, from letters up to chapters. Here's a list, which is by no means complete, that explains what I'm on about:
- Words → Sentences
- Sentences → Paragraphs
- Paragraphs → Sections
- Sections → Chapters
- Chapters → Document
You could of course go more granular than this, but I think it illustrates the point.
From this you can see how, by looking closely at the content, that the language can be broken up into chunks, into bits of semantically functional elements. So, you could argue that:
- Documents have a conceptual structure
- Graphic structures can be made that reflect conceptual structures
This perhaps the key to successful typographic design. Making sure the graphical representation of the content matches the mental model of the reader, or conceptual structure stipulated by the author (or preferably both).
Bridging the XHTML gap
As I mentioned earlier, designers often struggle (in all the Web Standards malarkey) to make the connection between their design, the content and then the code. The code bit seems very abstract initially. Hopefully this next stage will help explain how the gap can be bridged painlessly.
We have our model for matching the semantics, or meaning, of our document to the design we create:
- Documents have a conceptual structure
- Graphic structures can be made that reflect conceptual structures
Now, add to that our step for XHTML:
- Documents have a conceptual structure
- Graphic structures can be made that reflect conceptual structures
- XHTML structures can be made that reflect conceptual structures
The graphic and XHTML structure of a document should reflect its conceptual structure.
Therefore our finished web page will:
- Be presented, typographically, to match the document's conceptual model
- The XHTML underlying the web page will also match the conceptual model
- The meaning, or semantics, of the web page will match that intended by the original document.
For the visually oriented amongst us...
I'm going to put this into pictures to help explain what I'm on about. If anything it might help me firm up this theory a bit.
So, let's put this in the realms of reality. Let's say you have a brief from a client, who happens to be an estate agent, to build a web site for him. Most of the content for that site will be house details. Currently he produces single sided documents with the house specs on and he wants you to build the bulk of the website using this information.
So, here's the house details:
As you can see, there's very little visual design been done to this document. The first task then is to establish the document's conceptual structure, its semantic elements, from there we can identify our typographic structure.
Once that is done, forgetting the design for the moment, we can (again, using the documents conceptual structure), label those elements with their corresponding XHTML tags.
The document conceptual structure is retained, we now have our XHTML structure (our semantic markup). Focussing then on the design we can make the typographic structure match the conceptual structure (still retaining our XHTML structure)
And there we have it. A typographic design, which has been tagged up with semantic XHTML, which retains the author's conceptual structure.
The benefits of going through the process in this manner is that it's from a designer's perspective, there's less of a leap conceptually into the land of code where document structures are common place (OOP etc.) I've been following this model for a couple of weeks now and it works pretty well. It streamlines the process of assigning heading tags for example which have always been quite arbitrary in the past.
For those designers who are coming from a multi-disciplinary, or print, background and have trouble with this whole 'semantic markup' thing, please give this a go and let me know what you think. In fact designers who have been doing Web Standards for a while please give this a go and let me know how you get on with it. I'd be interested in knowing your thoughts.
Carson Workshops - CSS for Designers
Here I am, sat on a train, stuffed full of Sushi awaiting the train to finally pull away so I can start my long trip home (about four hours depending on which signal's decide to fail). After buying my 12inch iBook in July, this is the first time I've used it in a truly mobile capacity and so far it's going well. Anyway, I'm not going to go about sushi, trains or laptops in this post. Today, I had the great pleasure of attending the 'CSS for Designers' workshop hosted by Carson Workshops in London. What a day it was.
I've sat here for a good ten minutes now thinking where to start on describing today, so I'll just start at the beginning.
Carson Workshops is a UK based company doing really great things. Ryan and Gillian's combined talents are managing to get the most talented and inspirational speakers from around the world over to the UK, as well as events in the States, to give day long workshops to the industry.
Like a lot of web professionals (do I fall within the bracket Andy? Molly? I'd like to think so :)), I try to attend as many conferences as I can in the web industry, such as @media, SXSW, unfortunately I couldn't make it to dConstruct, but I was there in spirit. These conferences are generally very good. The wide variety of speakers give informed presentations on a plethora of material. However, these panels and presentations rarely last more than an hour, and from my experience, there's only so much you can gain from them. Workshops, such as the one attended today, are a very different beast all together.
I've met Andy before in person, very briefly, at @media in London in June and found his presentation very inspirational from a designer's perspective. Andy talks the same language as me. Japanese. No, seriously, Andy's design talents are but the tip of a Web Standards trifle. I mean, Iceburg. The guy just really, really knows his stuff. Not only all the creative design stuff, but also how to implement it using web standards. The most important thing, however, is Andy can explain this stuff in a language designers can understand. No mean feat. The same can be said about his co-presenter, Molly.
It was great to finally meet Molly. If there's one person in the web industry who embodies the passion that first got me interested in this medium, then that's Molly. The thing that got me about Molly, as she was presenting throughout the day, was the incredible depth of her knowledge. Like Andy, she really, really knows her stuff but in a slightly different way, from a different background. The two of them working together throughout a whole day worked very well indeed. A great double act. Not quite Morecombe and Wise though, more like Cannon and Ball :)
Ok, that's enough back-slapping (the troll's will be queueing up otherwise). What I'm getting at is, if you get the change to go to a workshop like this or listen to either of these guys speak, then do it.
As I was saying earlier, a workshop format is very different from a conference. In a conference format you only get a snapshot of the presenter's work, on a subject they choose, in a format and structure which may not be totally up to them. How much can you really gain from this format in practical terms? Yes, they're great for inspiration, for steering you in the right direction, but generally they lack specific detail and the opportunity to ask very specific questions in the context of a project you may be working on. The workshop format changes all of this.
This was a full day workshop, from 9am until 6pm with reasonable breaks for lunch and coffee. So, it was a long day to sit in front of a projector and listen to two people talk about the same subject. Or so you may think. In reality, it wasn't like this at all. With some nicely designed slides, a user-friendly agenda (meaning it wasn't all design in the morning and theory in the afternoon) and regular swapping over by Molly and Andy it made the day go really quickly.
When I first arrived, Molly and Andy both expressed a concern to me that I'd know a lot of stuff that they'd go through throughout the day. This was not the case at all. Regardless of your experience level, you should consider attending one of this workshops. I learnt tons of stuff that I'd either skimmed over, couldn't be bothered learning fully, or got by by other means. One of these examples was Molly's examples of Relative and Absolute positioning. I'd sort of understood them for a while, but never used them because I'd always used floats. During the presentation a little light bulb went on in my head. 'Hello there', I said, 'Now I get it. This looks really cool!'. In fact, that happened quite a few times throughout the day.
The personal highlight for me was when Andy was presenting a section and grid design and a slide of my site appeared. Well, if he hadn't of forwarned me, you could've knocked me down with a feather. He even made me stand up, which was nice. I like to think I took this five minutes of fame in my stride to a rather bemused audience who, not surprisingly, had never heard of me.
A fun day had by all
If there's one thing to be said about today's workshop is that it was enlightening, both in terms of day's presentations, but also in the pub afterwards (which is where most of the really useful stuff is normall discussed). Thank you to Ryan and Gillian for hosting a fantastic day. It was great to meet some new people, finally meet Molly and have more than five minutes to talk with Andy. Interesting to note how many people from the BBC were there also. Are we to expect big CSS things from the BBC designers in the future? Well, just maybe.
Well, that's killed an hour. Right I'm off to the buffet car. Stella anyone?
Professional CSS: A first look
I've just received my copy of Professional CSS - Cascading Style Sheets for Web Design so I'd thought I'd share my first thoughts after flicking through the book.
p>First off, this book looks like a technical book written for people who already have a good understanding of CSS and what that involves, this is not a beginners book.
p>There's a foreword by Zeldman. I was quite looking forward to what Jeffrey would say about the book and the subject matter, but I guess he's already said it all as the foreword is a little uninspiring (sorry Jeffrey). The first chapter deals with planning to design and build a website and touches on subjects such as Information Architecture, Scope and it's really nice to see a good couple of pages on Personas and User Centred Design.
The second chapter outlines best practices in XHTML and CSS, giving a brief overview to semantic markup, box model, cascade and inheritance, etc. Again, if you've read a few CSS books before this one, a lot of this won't come as a surprise.
Then comes the bulk of books content, chapter after chapter of case studies with interviews from the designers and the techniques used to build the sites. They are:
- Blogger Rollovers and Design Improvements - Written by Dunstan Orchard, interviews with designer Douglas Bowman
- The PGA Championship - Todd Dominey
- The University of Florida - Mark Trammell
- ESPN.com - Written by Dunstan Orchard, interviews with Mike Davidson
- FastCompany.com: Building a flexible three column layout - Written by Ethan Marcotte, interview with Dan Cederholm
- Stuff and Nonsense: Strategies for CSS switching - Written by Ethan Marcotte, interviews with Andy Clark
- Bringing it all together - written by Christopher Schmitt
I'm sure they'll be some really good stuff in all of these chapters.
Anyhow, the upshot is, on first glance, it looks good. It's good to see a book aimed at the professional whose been using CSS for a while and understands the benefits etc, but needs a book to explain some more of the detail. Like I say, I haven't read it yet, just thumbed through it, but from what I can see it's certainly worth the money.
Who knows maybe next Geekend I can get Dunstan to autograph it for me. What do you reckon I could get for that on ebay?
Now with ‘zoom’ layout
It's amazing how productive an afternoon watching a gig can be.
So, if you click on 'Accessibility options' on the top left you'll go to a page where you can set a cookie for the new layout.
Just to summarise Joe's points from his presentation in creating a 'zoom' layout (please correct me if this is wrong):
- Make multicolumn into one column
- Make small fonts into larger fonts
- Reorder navigation and content
- Minimise navigation at the top of the page
I will of course be addressing the point Joe raised in his presentation that low-vision people generally prefer a high contrast (light text on a dark background), which is the version I've added here, but people with certain learning difficulties prefer dark type on a pale background. I will be adding a version of this soon.
Doug Bowman of Stopdesign recently added these two different styles to his site. The zoom layout is available for use and was used as the basis for my high contrast stylesheet.
Also, thanks to Roger Johansson for prompting me to get this done and also providing the code for the cookie.
Like I said, this is very much a 'beta' layout at the moment. There are problems with it and there are problems with the content ordering and stuff, but it's a start and hopefully I'll begin trimming it down over the next few weeks.
“It’s only a green stripe at the top”
After being featured by those lovely people at Stylegala and CSS Vault I thought it might be a an idea to give a bit of a deconstruction of the design here at markboulton.co.uk. This post was also prompted by Narayan over at Etherfarm and his great post, "all this fuss over some measly boxes"
So, what I want to deconstruct is the process I went through to come to this design and hopefully give some sort of answer to the title of this post.
Any blog, in my opinion, is a tricky thing to design. Whilst coupling this with the need for a designer to have an online portfolio presence, you begin to find yourself with quite a task on your hands.
I'd bumbled around, designing, redesigning, redesigning whilst drunk only then looking at it in the morning and trashing it (we've all been there right?). This went on, seriously, for about 2 years with no real direction or identity for my site. I then began a blog, mostly as a dumping ground for what i'm thinking so I can look back and go "oh yeah, I thought that once, look how much i've grown" - you know, the usual navel gazing.
Then there's the technical side. I'd used MT for a good 18 months and was happy with it, sort of, until the spam started rolling in. The thing about MT is, it's great for a blog, but not so great for a portfolio. That's where EE stepped in. I'm not going to talk about that here though - i've talked enough about that already.
What i'd like to talk about is the design.
Defining the audience
In my day job, I like to think I have a User Centred approach to the work I do (although i'm beginning to realise the dogmatic aspects of UCD and i'm kind of formulating another, more agile, methodology which all be writing about soon.)
So, I think about Users all the time (I honestly do, i'm not just saying that). With that in mind I was beginning to think about the audience of my site and they fall into four categories - Existing clients, potential clients, Journal readers and random visitors. Designing a site, knowing that much about your audience, really helps clarify your thinking. With that in mind, I needed a site which appears business like and professional for the client half, but personable and friendly for the journal part.
Not all clients are web savvy
This is really important, especially amongst the extremely savvy Web Standards Brigade. A lot of the time, clients are not the most seasoned internet users. They don't really care whether or not the site is delivered using CSS, XHTML, blah, blah. They really are all boring acronyms to most people. What i'm saying is, I really had to think about potential clients and the language they speak - a language of profit and loss, sales and budgets, ROI and deliverables.
It's about Craft
I then approached the design with a clear brief. I know my audience and what i'm trying to say to them, but I need to make sure the design shows what i'm about as a designer. To make sure it embodies my design ethos and displays my application of the craft.
If you've read my Biog, you'll know i'm traditionally schooled in Typographic Design and am a member with of the International Society of Typographic Designers and as such have a self imposed obligation to uphold what the Society stands for. I try to do this will every design I produce.
At the moment I've got a thing about Helvetica. Maybe it's the clean lines, or impersonal perfection which appeals. I don't know, but I think it's got the most perfect lower case "e" of any typeface in history, ever. Anyway, I digress. I decided early on that type would be the walls, floor and ceiling of this particular building. Typography will bind the content together, the structure would be comprised of letters and a delicate heirachy of heading, subheading, captions and body copy, rather than coloured shapes and photography.
I was getting tired of the saturated colours and the heavy, intricate graphics which are proliferating in the web standards scene. There's too much visual noise, way too much. I though "what's the best way of differentiating yourself in this increasingly noisy space?" well, by being quiet.
btw. If anyone wants me to into more detail regarding the grid and typography, let me know and i'll work on it.
Colour as an educated, informed choice
Colour bugs me. How many times has a client asked you to make something a particular colour because they like it? I wanted the colour choice for this site to reflect an educated design choice. Green works for me at the moment, it's not my favourite colour but that's not to say it won't change in the future, it might. But at the moment, i'm fine with it.
This isn't a post aimed at people who don't like the design. That's fine, you don't have to. What I hope I addressed was to explain where I was coming from, what my requirements were and what they are likely to be in the future. Designing your own portfolio site as a designer is always incredibly difficult and it takes some willpower to sit on your hands and just live with a design for a good few months - which is just what I intend to do.
London and the Vault
In less than an hour i’ll be getting in my car, with my wife, and off to visit friends in London. Really looking forward to it. It’ll be just over three years since i’ve been to London properly after living there for a few years, so visiting old haunts will be nice.
On to the London thing again. I am thinking of dragging the wife, and chums, to the Design Museum whilst we’re there as we never really did much of the museums when we lived there. The Tate may be on the cards as well, that kind of depends what exhibitions are on at moment.
Of course there will be a visit to the Apple Store and possibly a purchase (my ears have been complaining of late because of the unforgiving iPod earphones. Some of those squidgy ones may be in order)
So, anyone got any ideas? Where can I go at the weekend? (that is of course assuming the friends, and wife, want to come with me!)
What’s missing from DIF?
Finally after months of wondering if it was worth it (yes, yes, I know it’s only ten bucks) i’ve finally subscribed to four issues of DIF. I’ve got to say, so far i’m very impressed.
The content is good and very well positioned to appeal to seasoned industry veterans and novices alike. But, yes there is a but…
I found the content didn’t address some of the core fundamentals of design theory - eg, colour, balance, typography, grids etc. Now maybe DIF isn’t the place for this. But I feel that some solid theoritical articles, especially surrounding a dying practice of correct typography and grid design, were missing from the issues I have.
I’ve been thinking of a number of articles that I might write for submission, and if they’re not accepted then i’ll just leave them posted up here.
So, what do you think should be in DIF?
A few things of interest this morning…
Apple iPhone prediction confirmed.
I didn’t think it would be long before this was confirmed. Personally i’m sold already and I haven’t even seen it! I’m such an Apple whore.
Targeting Small Screens - Stopdesign
Doug’s back with a great writeup on targeting small screens for your designs.
WDW2004 keynotes available as video
Speakers include: Jeffrey Zeldman, Jason Fried, Ethan Marcotte & Molly Holzschlag
On another note. The migration to Expression Engine is going well although still quite a lot to do with the design. Some of the portfolio may have to be redesigned again due to EE not being able to do some of the conditional logic I want it to. Never mind, there’s always a different approach.
BBC Wales music site launched
Following a few months of work the BBC Wales music site has been relaunched with a more advanced technical backend, partial CSS and much tighter information architecture.
So, what tags do I use to quote?
Well, Roger Johansson has the answers. Excellent article on correct use of q, blockquote and cite.
Apple green is *so* the new black
I am just a sucker for Apple green at the moment. In case you hadn’t noticed, it is everywhere! So, on the weekend I bought an apple green t-shirt and here’s a nice apple green website for company called Forty Media, nice design, nice christmassy look about it at the moment. The tone of voice is just right as well.
Rather nice site
Having featured on Stylegala when this site was launched I regularly look at the gallery and say the odd thing in the forums. Occasionally a site featured on the gallery jumps out at me as being something rather special - today was one of those days.
Simmons College website is very refreshing, not only in terms of CSS, but also in terms of design. The palette is spot on, in design trend terms - earthy, pastels, calming colours. The inspiration is from the illustrations used on the site (and it’s nice to see illustrations being used). The typography is also very tasteful. Clean serifs and san serifs throughout, although sometimes they don’t quite work and look a bit cluttered.
Very nice site though and well worth ten minutes of your time looking round it.
Lots to look at this wet Monday morning.
Web Essentials in Sydney has drawn to a close. Great write up from Doug Bowman as always. Doug also has both his presentations available now at his site. They do make good reading and make sense, to a degree, out of context. Incidently, Doug archives all his presentation’s here, if you have a spare couple of hours, and are that way inclined, give them a read.
Another one bites the dust, Yahoo is moving to CSS. Good write up at Whitespace
Stylegala has launched a forum. Some good topics of conversation already.
Web Essentials 04 kicks off in Sydney
Presentations by Doug Bowman and Dave Shea seem to be the highlights. Doug’s presentation is here - it isn’t accompanied by his voice, and the stylesheet doesn’t work, but it contains some useful stuff non-the-less.
Web Essentials 04 is a conference of Web Standards, amongst other things, currently going on in Sydney, Australia
New site on Stylegala
This site has been put up on Stylegala and is currently number 4 in the voting. Nice one.
Not the best write up i’ve ever had, but the comments back are good and has made me think about altering a couple of things.
- The write up is right in that the menu is a little old-hat. I think this needs to change. Maybe into tabs. Not sure yet.
- The design needs some finesse. Some spit and polish. But i’ve got a solid base now on which to add that - I know I won’t be polishing a turd.
- There are some issues, as highlighted, with navigating within the portfolio section. This section has a linear navigational model rather than multi-level, like the rest of the site. Needs some work to make it more usable I guess. I’ll have a think about that.
Monday morning CSS goodness
A few new CSS things to look at this fine morning (all courtesy of email being down - I like monday mornings like this one)
Some nice new sites, some of which are minging though. I really don’t get the whole rich, wallpaper background image, looks like the smoking room in ‘The Butchers’, design thing. It’s not big or clever. I’m talking about http://www.alazanto.org/
Version 2 is a great idea. I think after the wedding i’m going to enter this competition, I think i’d have a good chance of getting somewhere.
Similar to CSS Vault. highlights for me - http://www.instablog.org/. This is great. Purely typographic. Design like a newspaper. I bit down and dirty with the CSS, with a few bugs, but otherwise really nice.
Blogger has been “Bowmaned” (and Adaptive Pathed)
Yesterday saw the relaunch of Blogger. All the “Web Standards” blogs out there were thick with praise for this redesign (I guess most of them don’t actually see beyond Doug’s great design and the Standards implementation). Doug has documented the process which has some great insights into this new launch.
I think the real success here is the Usability work done (and Dougs interpretation of the required “Ease-of-use"). The work Adaptive Path have done is fantastically elegant.
Good design shouldn’t be noticed. A very well design book, or newspaper, just works. The design doesn;t get in the way of the message. The new Blogger site is a wonderful example of this. Ease of use was of upmost importance, Jeff Veen points out that the Blogger wanted to be able to set up a blog, in three steps, in less than five minutes. Quite an undertaking.
The registration process is superb, one of the best i’ve used. Ever. It’s so simple even my mother could use it (and that’s saying something). Here’s some grabs of the process. What’s nice to see is contextual help links next to items that you may want help with.
The new Blogger logo is a good step on from the previous version and it ties in very well to the overall “curved” look of the site. I’m not over familiar with the original version of the logo, but I do know it was square, orange and blue. It’s a great logotype though. It carries a lot of the brand values - ease of use, approachable etc.
There are plenty of new templates available with the new Blogger, and all of them configurable from within the Blogger web-based interface.
The templates can be seen in full here. Some great designs from Zeldman, Bowman and Dan Cederhome (although there are a couple of lemons in there too, but maybe that’s just me).All of the templates are XHTML, with CSS driven presentation (as you’d expect from authors like this).
For the latest and greatest in Web Standards design
Have a look at the Web Standards Awards. Nice looking site in itself but previews some really good standards compliant sites globally.
A few CSS titbits
Some interesting articles around at the moment.
ALA as always delivers the goods this week with two great articles. Faux Columns answers some questions in my mind about vertically stretching divs etc. Elastic Design adds some thoughts surrounding the whole fixed/liquid thing.
Max design has a great “how to” guide on building a full CSS site. It takes you through the simple building blocks of writing semantic code and useful CSS. There’s a great section on print stylesheets too.
Found this site of an agency called 37signals which has a good balance of design and usability. They have some really good visuals of usability reports and that kind of thing (i’m finding this sort of thing with a brand guide I need to write soon). Some good resources and writing too.
Zeldman’s done a redesign which is cool although I find the tabs a little odd.
A lot has been said over the do’s and don’t’s of layout on screen. Designers who have a traditional design background, advocate a fixed column width is the way to go. Designers who have spent most of their working life designing for screen will be a little less retesent to go for a flexible layout (aka. Amazon). Of course the likes of Jakob Nielson will advocate that a flexible layout is more appropriate for browser window for usability purposes.
I kind of sit in the middle. The typographer in me screams “NO! Em’s are there for a reason, you can take advantage of them in CSS, so do it!” But the usability half of me see’s the advantages of a flexible layout and Doug’s site Stop Design proved this point well with one of the best flexible layouts i’ve seen. I say “proved” because he’s recently changed it to a fixed width which has prompted my post here.
There’s been some arguments about the “death of flexible width designs”. Personally the type of flexible width designs we’ve seen (amazon etc) should go simply because they degrade legibility by having no control over the line length of text.
“Hold on a minute! You can’t get rid of them all together” I hear you cry. No, we shouldn’t. We should replace them. True, the Snooch site is currently flexible, but i’m going to move it over to a fixed width BUT instead of the fixed width being based upon a pixel width, it will be based upon a em measurement.
So, how is this done? Well, first of all for those who don’t know, an “em” is a measurement in typesetting which is the width of the capital M of the font and size you are using. The “em” is a relational measurement, unlike a pixel which is a fixed measurement. Relationships like this are all important in “proper” typography. Line widths are related to the width of the font you are using. So, what i’m planning to do is have a “fixed” column width based on em’s BUT, this is the clever bit, If the users font size is a different size to the one specified in the stylesheet the column width would change accordingly ensuring legibility is retained. This is different to pixel width columns which retain that set width regardless of the size of the font.
Watch this site over the next few days for a change…
Arriva Trains site launched with Web Standards
Imaginet launched the Arriva Trains Wales website yesterday using Standards Based design for markup and layout. all credit to them, it looks good, works well cross browser. There’s a few bugs, the pages don’t validate as XHTML Strict although content or the odd tag is producing the errors - nothing major.
It’s good to see a major player such as Imaginet here in Cardiff launching a site like this. All credit to them.
Rounded corners in CSS
How many times have you heard “I’m sick of websites looking boxy”, no? Well, I get it almost every week. Once again ALA come up with the goods with a fantastic article of creating rounded corners using css and semantic markup.
What’s really interesting here is when the user’s font size is increased, the thing doesn’t break at all! I had to get up to about 300% of the original specified font size for the corners to start degrading. Thing is, it wasn’t the corners that degraded - it was the type within the div (breaking out of the div). Very nice.
Keeping Navigation Current with PHP
It’s something that i’ve wrangled with for a while - how to get CSS down-states from just one php include. This shows you how.
Currently reading… “Designing with Web Standards”
Quite simply a book that will change the way you create websites. I don’t often say that, but in this case it’s true. I generally ignore most “Web Design” books because they have little or no value to me, but this one is very different.
Zeldman begins by explaining why we should create websites in a standard way, and why it’s so important for the future. The second half of the book is how to do it. If you ever wanted to truly understand css, rather than just dabble, this book will teach you the difference between your divs and ids, relatives and absolutes.
Go and buy it, it’s cheap and invaluable.